By Thomas J. Monaco
This publication offers a very good heritage to handling weeds. besides the fact that, it does specialize in administration in crop lands. there's very good info on many alternative administration concepts from mechanical regulate to using herbicides. Many chapters also are dedicated to the organic mechanisms that make herbicides powerful. For someone attracted to recovery and weed administration in noncrop lands, this publication will not be definitely worth the cash. you will get many of the related info off herbicide labels and the net.
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To determine the longevity of seed, Duvel placed 107 species in porous clay pots and buried them 8, 22, and 42 inches deep in the soil. He removed samples at various intervals and left others undisturbed. His findings, reported by Toole and Brown (1946), were as follows: After 1 year, seed of 71 species germinated. After 6 years, seed of 68 species germinated. 28 WEED BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY After 10 years, seed of 68 species germinated. After 20 years, seed of 57 species germinated. After 30 years, seed of 44 species germinated.
1% of curly dock seed germinated. The actual percentage of germination is not as important as the fact of survival. Programs to eradicate plants with long seed dormancy are doomed to failure until techniques are developed to break (100%) seed dormancy in soil. The three depths did not greatly influence the data; however, seed at the 42-inch depth lived slightly longer. The 8-inch depth is far below the ideal depth for most seeds to germinate. If one sample had been buried 1 inch deep or less, greater differences caused by depth would have been likely.
Cox, G. W. 1999. Alien Species in North America and Hawaii—Impacts on Natural Ecosystems. Covelo, CA. Dekker, J. 1999. Soil seed banks and weed management. In Expanding the Context of Weed Management, ed. by D. D. Buhler, pp. 139–166. Food Products Press, New York. Duke, S. , and J. Lydon. 1987. Herbicides from natural products. Weed Technol. 1:122–128. Executive Order on Invasive Weeds, February 3, 2000. Fenner, M. 1995. Ecology of seed banks. In Seed Development and Germination, ed. by J. Kigel and G.