By Ronald Goldfarb

The kind and pervasiveness of confidentiality concerns this present day is breathtaking. now not an afternoon passes with out a media document on a breach of confidentiality, a declare of attorney-client privilege, a journalist jailed for refusing to bare a resource, a scientific or health facility checklist improperly disclosed, or an incredible enterprise deal uncovered through nameless resources. In Confidence examines personal concerns that come up in a number of disciplines and relationships and considers which can be secure and which may still not.


Ronald Goldfarb organizes the e-book round execs for whom confidentiality is a controversy of weighty significance: executive officers, legal professionals, clinical group of workers, psychotherapists, clergy, enterprise humans, and newshounds. In a bankruptcy dedicated to every one, and in one other on spousal privilege, he lays out particular matters and the law’s positions on them. He discusses an array of lawsuits during which confidentiality concerns performed an enormous function and judgements have been usually stunning and debatable. Goldfarb additionally appears into the standards that are supposed to be used while selecting no matter if secrets and techniques has to be printed. His nuanced research unearths how federal govt practices and technological functions more and more problem the limits of privateness, and his considerate insights open the door to significant new debate.


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Of their knowledge and discovery. . ” In the world of legal writing and scholarship, perhaps no one person so dominated a field as did the late John Henry Wigmore, whose treatise on evidence was widely considered the Bible. The modern adapter of Dean Wigmore’s classic treatise on evidence in the area of privilege, Professor Edward J. 19 In his landmark treatise, Wigmore explained the rationale for making exceptions to the general rule requiring all people to give evidence in a court of law. In the case of certain relationships, communications may not be disclosed if four fundamental conditions are satisfied: (1) the communications were made in confidence; (2) the element of confidentiality is essential to maintain the parties’ relationship; (3) there is a community need to “sedulously” foster the relationship; and (4) the harm to the relationship caused by disclosure would exceed any benefit from the disposal of the litigation.

Advocates argue, understandably, that confidentiality is a critical feature of their work, an essential need of their clientele, and a socially valuable public purpose. But the unclear constitutional right to privacy that underlies these claims can conflict with the clearer constitutional requirement that defendants be given the opportunity to confront and examine their accusers. 34 The relationship between parents and children is another compelling example. Ancient Jewish and Roman laws recognized, and modern laws in several countries now recognize, a parent-child privilege.

12 Other confidential matters may not be privileged under the law—for example, 23 24 PRIVACY, CONFIDENTIALITY, AND PRIVILEGE secrets between friends or family members or in business dealings. Those relationships may be—and should be—confidential, but they are not privileged. Privileged Communications The philosophical difference between confidentiality and privileged communications was noted in a 1776 English case. A witness in a bigamy trial, a lord no less, was asked if the lady in question told him that she was married.

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