By John F. Copper
This three-volume paintings is the 1st accomplished examine of China's overseas reduction and funding international relations to track its evolution because the founding of PRC in 1949. quantity I examines the definitions, origins, nature, and scope of China's international reduction and funding and exhibits that China has a extra salient background of giving than the other country.
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Additional info for China’s Foreign Aid and Investment Diplomacy, Volume I: Nature, Scope, and Origins
176 This report was lauded by observers, including a number of Western reporters and even scholars, for providing an even more detailed explanation of China’s foreign aid and for listing the number of nations China granted aid to, where those nations were located, and the amounts of its aid granted during certain periods. It cited 161 nations as having received China’s aid from 2010 to 2012 and also that half of its recipients were African countries, during the period mentioned. 177 But the report did not provide a new or clear definition of foreign aid; in fact, it created more confusion about China’s use of the term.
Changes in aid giving also reflected domestic ideological and policy reforms that were made during the early Deng era. 137 Private property replaced collectives and the state’s control of land in China diminished. 138 Mobilizing workers through moral incentives was ended in favor of material incentives; so too the incessant use of slogans, campaigns, and movements was abandoned in favor of merit pay increases. 139 This became the basis for new aid policies. Henceforth Chinese officials spoke less of self-reliance to recipients when giving foreign assistance.
126 China also promised support to Third World countries in matters other than financial. This may be seen simply as China’s rationalization for giving less aid. But it was more than that. One scholar/author describes the situation as China ending Mao’s “conceptual pillars”: self-reliance, minimizing dependency, and transforming the capitalist world economy. 129 And various other projects were cut back or not started. Finally, China changed its policy regarding supporting wars of national liberation virtually ending its aid to various insurgency groups.