By L. A. Cannizzaro

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Importantly, the predictive power of the 70-gene signature was based upon metastasis to non-lymphatic tissues. , 2005). The signature showed 93% sensitivity and 48% specificity when tested in an independent set of 171 LN-negative patients. As with the 70-gene signature described above, this signature outperformed the St Gallen criteria. , 2005). Once again, the signature was validated in an independent set of 289 patients and was found to outperform clinical criteria in the stratification of risk and overall survival.

Smith et al. (2004) used stable RNAi to reduce expression of CXCR4 in murine 4T1 cells, a highly metastatic mammary cancer cell line that is a model for advanced human breast cancer. The knockdown of CXCR4 significantly limited the growth of orthotopically transplanted breast cancer cells in all mice and even prevented primary tumor formation in some. , 2004). , 2005). CXCR4 expression is also a prognostic marker in various types of cancer, including breast carcinoma. , 2006). , 2005), thus, CXCR4 antagonists may become effective agents for the treatment of various malignancies.

2003). In a CGH study of 39 invasive breast carcinomas with a mean follow-up period of 99 months, Aubele et al. (2002) identified an independent prognostic value for chromosomal gains on 11q13, 12q24, 17 and 18p. , 2006). Array-CGH was also used by Yao et al. (2006) to show that the overall frequency of copy num- Cytogenet Genome Res 118:116–129 (2007) 117 ber alterations in regions 1q, 8q24, 11q13, 12p13, 17q21]q23, 16p13 and 20q13, correlated with the advancing nature of the tumors. , 2006).

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