By Herbert Schildt

This consultant stories the foundations and syntax of the primary instructions that include C and its object-oriented cousin, C++. The reference includes 19 chapters that outline operators and the normal input/output, string, personality, and extra.

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C and C++ define a set of standard headers that provide the information necessary for the various libraries. A header might refer to a file, but need not. Thus, a header is simply an abstraction that guarantees that the appropriate information is included. As a practical matter, however, C headers are nearly always files and the names of the headers are valid filenames. However, for C++, the situation is different. All C++ header names are standard identifiers that the compiler may map to a filename, or handle in another manner.

In C89 and C++, it is prototyped as shown here: void *memcpy(void *str1, const void *str2, size_t size); In the description for memcpy( ) it is stated that if the objects pointed to by str1 and str2 overlap, the behavior is undefined. Thus, memcpy( ) is guaranteed to work for only nonoverlapping objects. In C99, restrict can be used to explicitly state in memcpy( )’s prototype what C89 and C++ must explain with words. Here is the C99 prototype for memcpy( ): void *memcpy(void * restrict str1, const void * restrict str2, size_t size); Chapter 5: Keyword Summary 63 64 Chapter 5: Keyword Summary By qualifying str1 and str2 with restrict, the prototype explicitly asserts that they point to nonoverlapping objects.

All C++ header names are standard identifiers that the compiler may map to a filename, or handle in another manner. h extensions. For example, to include the header information for the C++ I/O system, use #include Here, is the standard header for the I/O classes. Chapter 4: The Preprocessor and Comments 43 44 Chapter 4: The Preprocessor and Comments "145"> The #line directive changes the contents of _ _LINE_ _ and _ _FILE_ _, which are predefined identifiers. The basic form of the command is #line number "filename" where number is any positive integer and the filename is any valid file identifier.

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