By S.K. Duggal

This ebook highlights: mechanical and actual homes of varied fabrics with emphasis on power and sturdiness; effect of assorted components on those houses; reasons of defects, their prevention and treatments; and, trying out systems of fabrics. This version contains: fabrics adjustments in chapters facing cement, concrete, lime and so forth; up to date checking out strategies; various revision of knowledge and substitutions; and, shrewdpermanent and composite fabrics as a separate bankruptcy. The e-book could function a via textual content for undergraduate scholars of civil engineering, structure and development know-how. working towards engineers, architects and contractors might additionally locate it a important reference resource.

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The ceiling tiles may be of single lug or double lug type as shown in Fig. 17(b). Flooring Tiles The flooring tiles are of three classes–class 1, class 2 and class 3. These are available in following sizes. 150 × 150 × 15mm, 150 × 150 × 20mm, 200 × 200 × 20mm 200 × 200 × 25mm, 250 × 250 × 30mm The average dimensions should not vary by more than ± 5 mm and that for a given area and space the dimensions of individual tile should not vary by more than ± 2 %. For thickness these limits are ± 2 mm and ± 1 mm respectively.

The clay used for its manufacture should be of superior quality and should have sufficient iron and alkaline matters. By varying iron oxide in clay, desired colour can be obtained. The clay is mixed with powdered glasses, pottery and sand ground to fine powder and pugged several times till it gets uniform and soft for moulding. Terracotta is impervious, hard and cheap. When properly made the material weathers well and becuse of its glazed surface can be cleaned easily. The product is burnt in special kilns (Muffle furnance).

3. Tends to lower the fusion point of the clay, especially if present as ferrous oxide. 4. Gives strength and hardness. 8 HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IN BRICK EARTH Lime: When a desirable amount of lime is present in the clay, it results in good bricks, but if in excess, it changes the colour of the brick from red to yellow. When lime is present in lumps, it absorbs moisture, swells and causes disintegration of the bricks. Therefore, lime should be present in finely divided state and lumps, if any, should be removed in the beginning itself.

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