By Damien L. Keogh

The definitive textual content within the box of Bridge Deck behaviour and research Bridge Deck research is a necessary reference for civil and structural engineers.It offers bridge designers with the information to appreciate the behaviour of bridge decks, to be acquainted with, and to appreciate many of the numerical modelling recommendations, to grasp which strategy is such a lot proper. The publication covers the grillage analogy, dedicates a bankruptcy to the modelling and research of indispensable bridge kinds and likewise offers information of the applying of the finite point approach.

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Thus dead load should be estimated as accurately as possible rather than simply rounded up. Superimposed dead load is the gravity load of non-structural parts of the bridge. Such items are long term but might be changed during the lifetime of the structure. An example of superimposed dead load is the weight of the parapet. There is clearly always going to be a parapet so it is a permanent source of loading. However, it is probable in many cases that the parapet will need to be replaced during the life of the bridge and the new parapet could easily be heavier than the original one.

The effect can be emphasised by casting the upstand in a whiter concrete or by casting the outer surface at an angle to the vertical as illustrated in Fig. 53. The depth of the upstand and the main deck relative to the span is a critical issue as will be seen in the following sections. Fig. 51 Continuity of upstand and parapet (photograph courtesy of Roughan and O’Donovan Consulting Engineers, Dublin) Page 35 Fig. 52 Shading of main deck relative to upstand (photograph courtesy of Roughan and O’Donovan Consulting Engineers, Dublin) Fig.

If restrained, such as in an arch or a frame bridge, this can generate significant axial force, bending moment and shear. The second effect is that due to differential changes in temperature. If the top of a beam heats up relative to the bottom, it tends to bend; if it is restrained from doing so, bending moment and shear force are generated. Uniform changes in temperature result from periods of hot or cold weather in which the entire depth of the deck undergoes an increase or decrease in temperature.

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