By Katzung B.G., Masters S.B., Trevor A.J.

The 11th version of simple & medical Pharmacology is a brand new e-book in vital methods. First, the addition of recent affiliate Editors to the editorial crew has elevated foreign money, intensity, and breadth of assurance; moment, conversion to fullcolor sort has elevated the readability of presentation and overall details content material. even as, the final association has been superior and the tutorial content material of prior variations has been increased.

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Extra info for Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, Eleventh Edition

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Open arrows denote regulatory effects. When the hormonal stimulus stops, the intracellular actions of cAMP are terminated by an elaborate series of enzymes. cAMPstimulated phosphorylation of enzyme substrates is rapidly reversed by a diverse group of specific and nonspecific phosphatases. cAMP itself is degraded to 5'-AMP by several cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE; Figure 2–13). Competitive inhibition of cAMP degradation is one way caffeine, theophylline, and other methylxanthines produce their effects (see Chapter 20).

Htm[6/24/2009 2:03:25 AM] AccessMedicine | Print: Chapter 2. Drug Receptors & Pharmacodynamics partial agonist's inability to cause a maximal pharmacologic response, even when present at high concentrations that saturate binding to all receptors, is indicated by the fact that partial agonists competitively inhibit the responses produced by full agonists (Figure 2–4C). Many drugs used clinically as antagonists are actually weak partial agonists. Partial agonism can be useful in some clinical circumstances.

All of these hormones produce their effects after a characteristic lag period of 30 minutes to several hours—the time required for the synthesis of new proteins. htm[6/24/2009 2:03:25 AM] AccessMedicine | Print: Chapter 2. Drug Receptors & Pharmacodynamics pathologic state within minutes (eg, glucocorticoids will not immediately relieve the symptoms of acute bronchial asthma). 2. The effects of these agents can persist for hours or days after the agonist concentration has been reduced to zero. The persistence of effect is primarily due to the relatively slow turnover of most enzymes and proteins, which can remain active in cells for hours or days after they have been synthesized.

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