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Additional info for Astrophysics,Part C, Radio Observations (Methods of Experimental Physics)

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1) where AT,,, is the root-mean-square noise fluctuation present in the observation, Tsysrepresents the system temperature, p denotes the receiver bandwidth, and t denotes the time interval over which the observations are made. 2). In a continuum receiver the bandwidth p can be increased in order to improve the sensitivity per unit time. In a spectral-line receiver the bandwidth is that required to resolve the line. For a spectral-line receiver the sensitivity can be improved only by reducing Tsysor increasing t.

5. A polarization observation of Hydra A at a wavelength of I 1 cm made with thc 64-m (210-ft) telescope at Parkes. Both the switched record (between two orthogonal beams. and the total power record of the signal in one beam are shown. 14 4. SINGLE-ANTENNA OBSERVATIONS thousand degrees, and thus the noise fluctuations in the receiver will be increased by this amount. There is no way to remove this effect, but because it is identical to the receiver noise the fluctuations can always be reduced to the required level by sufficiently long integration times.

An additional refinement of the dual-beam technique involves positioning the two beams alternately on the source. First, the positive-responding beam is positioned on the source while the negative-responding one points to the sky background on one side (for example, let us say east of the source). Next, the negative beam is directed at the source while the positive one points to the sky background on the opposite side of the source (west, in our example). Then, if the switched radiometer outputs at the two positions are subtracted, we can represent the net signal by the equations J.

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