By John Bowers

Sequence ahead -- Preface -- 1. creation and evaluation -- 2. Passive -- three. Affectee arguments -- four. Grammatical functionality altering morphology -- five. Derived nominals -- 6. end -- Appendix A. A compositional semantics for argument heads -- Appendix B. First software of merge -- Notes -- References -- Index.

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19 Though argument categories in English generally select PP, I will assume that the category Th in English has the option of assigning inherent [acc] Case. An argument head may also c-select the category D, leaving the value of its Case feature unspecified. In that instance the Case feature of the DP must be valued through an Agree relation at some point in the derivation. Case assigned by an Agree relation is defined as structural case. A striking syntactic property of English is that all three of the primary arguments Ag, Th, and A¤ have the option of c-selecting D.

2 Passive In this chapter I develop in more detail the approach to the passive outlined in chapter 1. I first examine the empirical basis for my solution to the problem of the passive by-phrase, arguing that the data provide strong support for my claim that the argument position from which both the subject of actives and the by-phrase of passives derive is merged before any other arguments or quasi-arguments. Next, I examine critically an attempt by Collins (2005) to solve the problem of the passive byphrase within the current theory of argument structure and compare it to my approach.

18) a. Applying this test to the passive by-phrase reveals that in unmarked orders the passive by-phrase invariably occurs to the right of all other arguments and quasi-arguments:10 (19) a. b. (20) a. b. (21) a. b. (22) a. b. (23) a. b. (24) a. b. U M Who were the books given to Mary by ? Who were the books given by to Mary? U M=Ã U M U M U M U M Who was the king sold those slaves by ? those slaves? Who was the king sold by Which students were the books thrown at the professors by ? Which students were the books thrown by at the professors?

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