By T. Mowle

Why, regardless of their comparable ambitions, do the coverage personal tastes of the eu Union and usa diverge on such a lot of multilateral matters? to reply to that question, Allies at Odds completely examines fresh foreign efforts in palms keep an eye on, environmental safeguard, human rights, and army cooperation. proof from twenty separate circumstances helps the expectancies of the realist method of foreign politics, which makes a speciality of the function of strength chiefly. Neither cultural components nor foreign associations have as a lot impact as a few anticipate. This discovering used to be as actual in the course of the Clinton Presidency as throughout the present Bush management, indicating that targeting personalities overlooks extra huge and longer-lasting variations among the Atlantic allies.

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The offensive realist expects the United States to take advantage of opportunities to expand its power when it is able to do so. By expanding its power, the United States may encourage bandwagoning by demonstrating that joining the United States provides a better hope for gain than challenging the United States. 41 Furthermore, even a more defensive strategy of simply maintaining the status quo will require intervention on its behalf. This will remind potential challengers that the United States is a potential danger to them as well.

100 If American aversion to 32 Allies at Odds? multilateralism does not seem to be part of the possible cultural explanation, then we need not argue with Patten and Solana regarding whether or not European culture is tied to multilateralism. In any case, if culture means anything then it must be deeply imbedded—pan-European multilateralism may be rooted in the deepening of the EU, but this is relatively new to Europe. Its influence, if any, would belong to the liberal institutional approach described earlier.

If a European state seeks to promote a European solution that would isolate the United States, this is seen as evidence of institutionalism, not realism. If a European state acting in the absence of a common European stance takes a self-interested position in opposition to American policy, this is interpreted as evidence of neither institutionalism nor realism. Realism expects weaker states to bandwagon with a unipolar state; this book rejects the slippery view that any state behavior may be seen as self-interested, and thus in support of realism.

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