By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen
Major development has happened over the past few years in machine applied sciences and those are surveyed during this new quantity. incorporated are Si/(Si-Ge) heterojunctions for high-speed built-in circuits, Schottky-barrier arrays in Si and Si-Ge alloys for infrared imaging, III-V quantum-well detector buildings operated within the heterodyne mode for high-data-rate communications, and III-V heterostructures and quantum-wells for infrared emissions.
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Extra info for Advances in Research and Development, Volume 23: Modeling of Film Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (Thin Films)
_. _ ~ 1100 1200 1300 Temperature (K) FIG. 22. Surface coverage with H and CI and vacant site fraction during growth l'ronl dichlorosilane. Calculations were lbr a total pressure o 1 2 Tow with 50 sccm SiH~C! e and 6 sire H e. (From M. Hierlemann, A. Kersch, C. Wemer, and H. I. Eh,~'tro~'hem. So~'. ) By removing chlorine from the surface this opens up new active sites for adsorption. Even so, vacant sites are created more slowly than with hydride sources; thus lower growth rates arc always observed for dichlorosilanc than for silanc under similar conditions (147).
C. Cheng and J. T. , Phys. Rev. ) hydride ([3~) peak observed during thermal desorption measurements. This surface consists of dimer rows with one hydrogen atom terminating each dangling bond. Thus in the ideal case there are no reactive surface sites and surface reactions cannot take place. These experiments show that at temperatures near those used for growth, only the monohydride species is present. Thus desorption from the monohydride is of dominant importance in determining growth rates. It might be expected that the surface desorption reaction would be 2Sill* ---* 2Si* + H, (8) GexSil.
This opens up some new possibilities with respect to process design. For a given growth, APCVD has the highest hydrogen coverage during growth, and, as will be discussed later, a large hydrogen coverage is generally beneficial due to its surfactant-like behavior. 99 even at temperatures 800~ (150). 5 Electrical defect densities have also been measured and are acceptably low. F. TRANSITION ABRUPTNESS In a gas-phase reactor, the time required to change composition of the growing film is ideally given by T ~- Tresiden,.