By Zongjin Li

During the last twenty years concrete has loved a renewed point of analysis and trying out, leading to the advance of many new sorts of concrete. by using a number of ingredients, creation suggestions and chemical techniques, there's now a very good measure of regulate over the homes of particular concretes for a variety of functions. New theories, versions and checking out ideas have additionally been constructed to push the envelope of concrete as a development fabric. there isn't any present textbook which brings all of those developments jointly in one quantity. This e-book goals to bridge the space among the normal concrete applied sciences and the rising state of the art applied sciences that are gaining wider use.

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The name pozzolan originated from the Romans, who used some volcanic tuff from Pozzuoli village, near Mt. Vesuvius. Since the history of the development of hydraulic cement has been discussed in Chapter 1, only the important events are briefly mentioned here. In 1756, John Smeaton (the first person to style himself a civil engineer) was commissioned to rebuild the Eddystone Lighthouse off the coast of Cornwall, England). Recognizing that the normal lime mortars would not stand the action of water, Smeaton carried out an extensive series of experiments with different limes and pozzolans.

However, a high alkaline environment can also cause some durability problems, such as alkali aggregate reaction and leaching. 3 Hydration Hydration of cement is the reaction between cement particles and water, including chemical and physical processes. The properties of fresh concrete, such as setting and hardening, are the direct results of hydration. The properties of hardened concrete are also influenced by the process of hydration. Hence, to understand the properties and behavior of cement and concrete, some knowledge of the chemistry of hydration is necessary.

Caldarone, M. A. (2009) High-strength concrete: a practical guide, London: Taylor & Francis. Collins, P. (2004) Concrete: the vision of a new architecture, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. , and McNeil, I. (1996) Biographical dictionary of the history of technology, New York: Routledge. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. (1991) The new encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica. , (1964), Prestressed Concrete: Design and Construction, Berlin: Ernst & John.

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