By B. Chandrasekaran; K. Annadurai; E.Somasundaram

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Pant Nagar Agricultural University and Technology at Pant Nagar 1963 CTCRI, Trivandrum (Tuber crops)/National Seed Corporation (NSC) 1965 IAAP (Intensive Agriculture Area Programme) 1966 HYVP at Bangalore (Horticulture) 1969 CSSRI (Central Soil Salinity Research Institute) at Karnal (Haryana) 1970 CPCRI at Kasargod (Kerala) (Plantation crops)/Drought Prone 1971 TNAU (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University) at Coimbatore) and All India Co-ordinated Project for Dry land Agriculture 1972 ICRISAT at Patancheru, Hyderabad/National Commission on Agriculture 1974 Command Area Development 1976 IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme) 1977 T&V (Training and Visit System) 1979 NARP (National Agricultural Research Project) 1980 Wealth Tax on Agriculture was abolished 1982 NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) 1985 NAEP (National Agricultural Extension Project) 1995 NRCB at Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (Banana) 1998 NATP (National Agricultural Technology Project) 2006 NAIP (National Agricultural Innovation Project) The details on history of agriculture in India are in the subsequent Chapter 2.

The final stage of the dismemberment of Pangea occurred in the early Cenozoic. The North Atlantic rift continued north until North America and Eurasia (Europe) separated. During this stage, Antarctica and Australia separated. The final separation of the continents occurred about 45 Ma. The fragmentation of Pangea took about 150 million years. 1 Geography of India The most outstanding fact about the physical geography of India is the natural division of the country with three distinct segments of totally dissimilar character: (i) the Himalayas, the great mountain system to the north, (ii) the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain of northern India extending from Punjab to Assam, and (iii) the Peninsula of the Deccan to the south of the Vindhyas-a solid stable block of the earth’s crust, largely composed of some of the most ancient rocks, which the denudation of ages has carved into a number of mountain ranges, plateaus, valleys and plains.

The fauna of this sector is similar to that of Malagasy (Madagascar) and South Africa and to that of the southern flank of the Assam range. Along the Narmada Valley on the west coast are some marine fossil ferrous beds with fossils showing greater affinity with those of the Cretaceous of southern Arabia and Europe than with those of Assam and Tiruchirappalli regions. The dissimilarity indicates that there was still a sort of land barrier that separated the Bay of Bengal from the Arabian Sea. This land barrier has been called Lellluria, which included Peninsular India and Malagasy (Madagasgar).

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