By Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E

CD contains scholar variants of the OASYS software program applications 'FREW' and 'Safe'.

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specializes in the 3 significant geotechnical demanding situations of static soil-structure interplay difficulties: Deep foundations - piles, barrettes, Multi-propped deep excavations, and Bored and open face tunnels Read more...

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Extra info for A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep foundations, excavations and tunnels

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If the melt and crystals move together then the composition of the igneous rock formed when all the melt has crystallised will be the same as the parent rock unless contamination has occurred through mixing or assimilation. However, tectonic forces and convection currents within the magma may result in the crystals being separated from the melt. When the residual melt finally crystallises it will be far richer in silica that the parent rock. All magmas contain small amounts of dissolved gases. The most common is water followed by carbon dioxide, sulphur, chlorine and fluorine.

Igneous rocks within the ground and on the ground surface form various different types of igneous structures. At depth can be found massive amounts of solidified magma, called batholiths, that can extend for hundreds of square kilometres. But when these rocks are in a molten state, the melt will move upwards, not only because of density differences with the surrounding rock but also because of the pressure it is under, and it will do so by partially melting the material it is moving through. In addition, it will follow all the fractures in the surrounding rocks, not only filling up fractures, but also widening them by partial melting or plucking of material from the fracture walls.

The amount of volatiles within a magma is very much related to the magma source. At divergent plate boundaries and hot spots, the basaltic magmas essentially contain only primordial gas trapped since the Earth’s formation. 2%. In subduction zones, however, the water content can range between 1 and 6% because of the water contained within the subducted sediments. Carbon dioxide is also more abundant in magmas associated with subduction. g. ). The degassing of volatiles as the magma rises is the principal cause of explosive volcanic eruptions (Rothery, 2003).

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