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G. by Moravcsik (1975, 1978), Weinreich (1953), Haugen (1950), or Meillet (1921). 7. Formulating statistical and implicational universals of loan verb accommodation and verb borrowability, based on the observations made. 8. Addressing general problems of cross-linguistic loanword studies and suggesting further directions of research. 6 Introduction With regard to this study’s scope over the languages of the world, the question of adequate sampling from these languages, and the representativeness of the data collected are discussed in sec.

Ex. (1), while others apply a verbalizer of some kind so that the loan verb can then be inflected, cf. ex. (2). Yet another way of handling a borrowed verb is to enter it as an non-inflecting part into a complex predicate, where the borrowed verb is joined by a native verb which takes all the inflection, cf. ex. (3). (1) Mapudungun [arn] < Spanish [spa] (Fernández-Garay 2005: 55 ex. ’ < [spa] operar ‘to operate’5 (2) Udihe [ude] < Russian [rus] (Nikolaeva and Tolskaya 2001: 22 ex. ) Background: The study of borrowing 7 These three examples are typical representatives of the three major strategies of loan verb accommodation that account for the bulk of loan verb accommodation techniques in the languages of the world.

2 Haugen on borrowability His general skepticism regarding Stene’s claims notwithstanding, Haugen (1950: 224) connects these claims to the ideas of Whitney (1881) and Tesnière (1939), who both explicitly mention verbs when they make their point that the more “functional” or “systematic” a class of elements in a language is, the more resistant this class will be toward borrowing. It is with exactly this background that Haugen (1950: 224) suggests the following “scale of adoptability”: N OUNS > V ERBS > A DJECTIVES > A DVERBS & P REPOSITIONS > I NTERJECTIONS Figure 2.

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